Code switching is generally defined as the phenomenon wherein a bi- or multilingual speaker shifts from one language to another in the course of a conversation. Numan and Carter briefly define code switching as “a phenomenon of switching from one language to another in the same discourse” (2001:275). Hymes defines only code-switching as “a common term for alternative use of two or more language, varieties of a language or even speech styles. Code-switching is the practice of switching between languages or linguistic dialects. Sociologists, linguists and educators study code-switching to analyze cultural interactions and educational techniques.

Code-switching can occur for an entire conversation, within a conversation or within a speaking turn. It applies to the fluidity of primary and secondary languages among bilingual and multilingual people, as well as the movement between variations of a single language.
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Speech Act Theory

Speech Act is the theory of “how to do things with words“ (Austin), viz. by making an utterance (locutionary act) in a context, language users performne or more social acts. These are called ‘speech acts‘ (illocutionary acts) (Searle): assertion, a question, promise. So it believes that language used to perform actions. It concerned with the analysis of continuous discourse.

Interactional Sociolinguistics

Interactional Sociolinguistic focuses on how people from different cultures may share grammatical knowledge of a language but differently contextualize what is said such that different messages are produced. It focuses on spoken language. It concerned with the importance of context in the production and interpretation of discourse.
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Within linguistics, discourse is often described as “language-in-use” or “socially situated text and talk”, i.e., analysts ask how written, oral and visual texts are used in specific contexts to make meanings, as opposed to analysing language-as-an-abstract-system.

Beyond written texts and multi-modal texts (TV, advertising, internet, etc.), discourse analysts also consider the sexuality of talk, cities, bodies, buildings and music. Some analyses flow over many books and historical archives, whereas others do fine-grained analysis of a small number of texts.

A selection of approaches to discourse analysis:

  • Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)
  • Sociocognitive Discourse Studies
  • Political Discourse Analysis
  • Discursive Psychology
  • Conversational Analysis
  • Laclau and Mouffe’s Discourse Theory

According to Eamon Fulcher, discourse analysis is a qualitative method that has been adopted and developed by social constructionists. Although discourse analysis can and is used by a handful of cognitive psychologists, it is based on a view that is largely anti-scientific, though not anti-research.

Some basic assumptions of the approach:

•  Psychologists cannot be objective when studying human behaviour. In the scientific approach there is the belief that knowledge can be gained by objectivity (without bias or preconceptions). However, this belief has been disputed – people, including researchers, cannot be objective. A researcher is very likely to hold some position (expectation, bias, belief, or set of cultural values) when they are conducting their research.

•  Reality is socially constructed. In the scientific approach it is assumed that it is possible to categorise reality, and that ideas or constructs that psychologists use, such as personality and intelligence, are naturally occurring things or categories. However, this ignores the fact that language shapes the categories and constructs we use. Since language is a social and cultural thing, our sense of reality is socially and culturally constructed.

•  People are the products of social interaction. In the scientific approach it is assumed that many of the constructs used are ‘inner essences’. That is to say that personality, anxiety, drives, and so on, exist somewhere within. However, it may be the case that many of these so-called essences are actually the products of social interaction.

Discourse analysis is a way of understanding social interactions. The researcher acknowledges their own bias and position on the issue, known as reflexivity. The research begins with a research question (and not a hypothesis in the formal sense) that is aimed at a theoretical position. A conversation or piece of text is transcribed and then deconstructed. This involves attempting to identify features in the text, such as discourses. A discourse is a particular theme in the text, especially those that relate to identities, for example such as a statement that reiterates a view or claim that men find weddings dull, and so on. Topics that have been studied include men’s friendships, family conversations of the royal family, an interview with Princess Diana, media constructions of racism, gender categories in discourse, lesbian motherhood, conversations about marriage, men’s talk about fatherhood, and so on.





The article of Maria Celce Murcia, Zoltdn Domyei, and Sarah Thuirrel argues that the need for an updated and explicit description of language teaching areas generated with reference to a detailed model of communicative competence. They believe that an informed approach concerning the objectives of CLT will be conducive to the teaching of communicative language abilities regardless of whether one’s philosophy of language teaching/learning favours implicit, indirect language acquisition (e.g., Krashen, 1982) or more.

Linguistic and applied linguistic didn’t use the term competence in the same way. Taylor (1988) points out that among applied linguists, Stem (1983) equated “competence” with “proficiency” while Savignon (1983) viewed competence as dynamic.

Existing Models of Communicative Competence   

1. Grammatical competence – the knowledge of the language code (grammatical rules, vocabulary, pronunciation, spelling, etc.).

2. Sociolinguistic competence – the mastery of the sociocultural code of language use appropriate application of vocabulary, register, politeness and style in a given situation).

3. Discourse competence – the ability to combine language structures into different types of cohesive texts (e.g., political speech, poetry).

4. Strategic competence – the knowledge of verbal and non-verbal communication strategies which enhance the efficiency of communication and, where necessary, enable the learner to overcome difficulties what communication breakdowns occur.

They represent their model of communicative competence as a pyramid enclosing a circle and surrounded by another circle (see Figure 1).

Figure 1


There are five component of communicative competence. Those are (1) discourse competence, (2) linguistic competence, (3) actional competence, (4) sociocultural competence, and (5) strategic competence.

Discourse competence

Discourse competence concerns the selection, sequencing, and arrangement of words, structures, sentences and utterances to achieve a unified spoken or written text. There are many sub-areas that contribute to discourse competence: cohesion, deixis, coherence, generic structure, and the conversational structure inherent to the turn-taking system in conversation.

Linguistic competence

It comprises the basic elements of communication: the sentence patterns and types, the constituent structure, the morphological inflections, and the lexical resources, as well as the phonological and orthographic systems needed to realize communication as speech or writing (cf. Celce-Murcia & Larsen- Freeman, 1983; Celce-Murcia, Brinton & Goodwin, in press).

Communicative Competence is much more a matter of knowing a stock of partially one-assembled patterns, formulaic frameworks, and a kit of rules, so to speak, and being able to apply the rules to make whatever adjustments are necessary according to contextual standards.

Actional competence

Actional competence is defined as competence in conveying and understanding communicative intent that is, matching actional intent with linguistic form based on the knowledge of an inventory of verbal schemata that carry illocutionary force (speech acts and speech act sets). Thus, actional competence is closely related to “interlanguage pragmatics,” which has been defined by Kasper & Blum-Kulka (1993a) as “the study of non-native speakers’ use and acquisition of Linguistic action patterns in a second language” (p. 3). The contextualized is restricted to oral communication; a close parallel to actional competence in written communication would be “rhetorical competence,” which includes analysis of the “moves” and “lexical routines” typical of any given written genre (see Swales,1990; Hoey, 1991; Bachman, 1990; & Vande Kopple, 1989, 1991).

Sociocultural competence

Sociocultural competence refers to the speaker’s knowledge of how to express messages accurately within the overall social and cultural context of communication, in accordance with the pragmatic factors related to variation in language use.

Strategic competence

Celce Murcia conceptualizes strategic competence as knowledge of communication strategies and how to use them. This conceptualization follows that of Canale & Swain (1980); however, research in the 1980s has identified several other types of strategies relevant to language learning, language processing, and language production. Work on communication strategies has typically highlighted three functions of strategy use from three different perspectives: psycholinguistic perspective, interactional perspective, community/maintenance perspective.

Source :



In the twentieth century, there are two types of language teaching approaches: getting learners to use language (to speak and understand it) versus getting learners to analyze a language (to learn its grammatical rules). Greek and Latin as the classical language were used as lingua franca. They were used widely in philosophy, religion, politics, and business.

During the Renaissance, the Greek and Latin’s grammar were popular through the mass production of book which was made by the invention of the printing press.  The classical Latin which described in Renaissance grammar became the formal object of instruction in school, and the Latin being used for everyday purposes.

During the seventieth century, the focus in language study was utility rather than analysis. The methodologist, Johann Amos Comenius made explicit an indicative approach to learning foreign language; the goal was to teach use rather than analysis of the language being taught.

By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the systematic study if the grammar of classical Latin and of classical texts had taken over in schools and universities throughout Europe. Then, the analytical Grammar-Translation Approach entrenched as a method for teaching not only Latin, but modern language as well.

By the end of the nineteenth century, the Direct Method, which once more stressed the ability to use rather than to analyze a language as the goal of language instruction. The Direct Method became very popular in France and Germany, and has many followers among language teachers even today.

In 1886, the International Phonetic Association held by scholars developed the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and became part of the Reform Movement in language teaching in the 1890s. The work of phoneticians focused on teaching of pronunciation and oral skills, which they felt had been ignored in Grammar Translation. The influence of the Direct Method grew up. In the early nineteenth century, it was used in the Atlantic.

Modern Language Association of America, based on the Coleman Report (Coleman 1929) endorsed the Reading Approach to language teaching, since given the skills and limitations of most language teacher.

The Reading Approach held sway in the United State until the late 1930s and early 1940s. US government hired linguists to help teach languages and develop materials: the Audiolingual Approach (Fries 1945), which drew heavily on structural linguists (Bloomfield 1933) and behavioral psychology (Skinner 1957), was born. Some historians of language teaching believe that the earlier Reform Movement played a role in the development of both Audiolingualism in the United States and the Oral-Situational Approach in Britain.

Source: Celce-Murcia, M. Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.


Some Definitions of Applied Linguistic


  •  The use of language-related research in a wide variety of fields, including language acquisition, language teaching, literacy, literary studies, gender studies, speech therapy, discourse analysis, censorship, workplace communication. Media studies, translation studies, lexicography, and forensic linguistics.

            (Richard Nordquist.Applied Linguistic. Retrieved from on 12 March 2012)

  • “Applied linguistics is an area of work that deals with language use in professional settings, translation, speech pathology, literacy, and language education; and it is not merely the application of linguistic knowledge to such settings but is a semiautonomous and interdisciplinary . . . domain of work that draws on but is not dependent on areas such as sociology, education, anthropology, cultural studies, and psychology.” (Alastair Pennycook, Critical Applied Linguistics: A Critical Introduction. Routledge, 2001)

            (Retrieved from on 12 March 2012)

  • The branch of linguistics concerned with practical applications of language studies, with particular emphasis on the communicative function of language, and including such professional practices as lexicography, terminology, general or technical translation, language teaching (general or specialized language, mother tongue or second language), writing, interpretation, and computer processing of language. (BTB Translation Bureau Canada)

             (Retrieved from on 12 March 2012)

  • ‘applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice dealing with practical problems of language and communication that can be identified, analysed or solved by applying available theories, methods or results of Linguisticsor by developing new theoretical and methodological frameworks in linguistics to work on these problems’ (AILA International Association of Applied Linguistics)

           (Retrieved from on 12 March 2012)

  • ‘Applied Linguistics (AL) provides the theoretical and descriptive foundations for the investigation and solution of language-related problems, especially those of language education (first-language, second-language and foreign-language teaching and learning), but also problems of translation and interpretation, lexicography, forensic linguistics and (perhaps) clinical linguistics.’ (Dick Hudson’s online survey of  BAAL British Association of Applied Linguistics members)

            (Retrieved from on 12 March 2012)

  • Applied linguistics means taking language and language theories as the basis from which to elucidate how communication is actually carried out inreal life, to identify problematic or challenging issues involving languagein many different contexts, and to analyse them in order to draw outpractical insights and implications that are useful for the people in thosecontexts.

(Anne Burns, Profesor in the Faculty of Human Science, Macquarie University, Sydney )

           (What is about Linguistic.Retrieved from on 12 March 2012)

  • Applied linguistics is any attempt to work with language in a critical andreflective way, with some ultimate practical goal in mind. This includes(amongst other things): deliberately trying to learn (or teach) a foreignlanguage or to develop your ability in your native language; overcoming alanguage impairment; translating from one language to another; editinga piece of writing in a linguistically thoughtful way.

(Phil Durrant, Visiting Assistant Professor, Graduati)

             (What is about Linguistic.Retrieved from on 12 March 2012)

  • The term ‘applied linguistics’ refers to a broad range of activities which involve solving some language-related problem or addressing some language-related concern.

            (G. Richard Tucker. Applied Linguistic – Linguistic Society of America. Retrieved from on 14 March 2012)

  • Applied linguistics’ (AL) is one of several academic disciplines focusing on how language is acquired and used in the modern world. It is a somewhat eclectic field that accommodates diverse theoretical approaches, and its interdisciplinary scope includes linguistic, psychological and educational topics.

(Zoltan Dörnye,Professor of Psycholinguistics, University of Nottingha)

           (What is about Linguistic.Retrieved from on 12 March 2012)

  • Applied linguistics (AL) provides the theoretical and descriptive foundations for the investigation and solution of language-related problems, especially those of language education (first-language, second-language and foreign-language teaching and learning), but also problems of translation and interpretation, lexicography, forensic linguistics and (perhaps) clinical linguistics.

(Richard Hudson, Emeritus Professor of Linguistics,University College London)

          (What is about Linguistic.Retrieved from on 12 March 2012)

  •  Applied linguistics is a broadly interdisciplinary field concerned with promoting our understanding of the role language plays inhuman life. At its centre are theoretical and empirical investigations of real-world issues in which language plays al eading role.

(Juliane House, Professor of Foreign Language Teaching, Universität Hamburg)

           (What is about Linguistic.Retrieved from on 12 March 2012)

  • Applied linguistics is a discipline which explores the relations between theory and practice in language with particular reference to issues of language use.

(Dawn Knight, Research Associate, University of Nottingham)

            (What is about Linguistic.Retrieved from on 12 March 2012)

The Scope of Applied Linguistic

An Illustration of the Scope of Applied Linguistics

taken from Kaplan (1980)

  1. The idea that AL is a mere application of the findings of linguistics to practical activities is clearly wrong.
  2. The idea that AL can be used interchangeably with foreign language teaching is clearly wrong.
  3. The idea that AL is only a practical field and it does not deal with theoretical issues is clearly wrong.
  4. Applied linguistics is neither a subordinate nor a superordinate to linguistics. That is, it is neither a subsection of linguistics nor linguistics itself.
  5. AL is a multidimensional, multifaceted, and multidiciplinary field which utilizes the findings of all theoretical and practical fields related to human life and analyzes, modifies, and then creates new ways of approaching language related topics.

(Retrieved from on 12 March 2012)


For Tenth Grade Students of English Class

After you listen to the story, do the exercises.

you can download it EXERCISE 1

Send your work in my email  before 30 Mei 2012.


Thank You


Ade Ulfayani

For Tenth Grade Students of English Class

First, please downloadiNarrative Text
Then, read and understand the material.
You can discuss it with your friends and we will discuss it in the next meeting.

Thank You

Ade Ulfayani

A Monkey and Crocodiles

Firstly, you have to download the video.
Then, watch the video carefully and understand the content of the story.
After you watc the video, please try to find out:

1. The content of the story
2. The purpose of the story
3. The generic structure

Bring your video in the next meeting. we will discuss it.

Ade Ulfayani

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