Speech Act Theory

Speech Act is the theory of “how to do things with words“ (Austin), viz. by making an utterance (locutionary act) in a context, language users performne or more social acts. These are called ‘speech acts‘ (illocutionary acts) (Searle): assertion, a question, promise. So it believes that language used to perform actions. It concerned with the analysis of continuous discourse.

Interactional Sociolinguistics

Interactional Sociolinguistic focuses on how people from different cultures may share grammatical knowledge of a language but differently contextualize what is said such that different messages are produced. It focuses on spoken language. It concerned with the importance of context in the production and interpretation of discourse.

Ethnography of Communication

This approach is concerned with understanding the social context of linguistic interactions: ‘who says what to whom, when, where. Why, and how’. The ethnographic framework has led to broader notions of communicative competence. It deals with Speech community, speech situations, events and acts, communicative competence.


This approach is at the base of pragmatic approach is to conversation analysis is Gricean’s co-operative principle (CP). This principle seeks to account for not only how participants decide what to DO next in conversation, but also how interlocutors go about interpreting what the previous speaker has just done.
Provides useful means of characterizing different varieties of conversation, e.g. in interactions, one can deliberately try to be provocative or consensual.
It is necesity to study actual language use in its relationship with the language user in its naturally variable context.

Conversation Analysis

CA identified TCU as the critical units of conversation; it has not specified exactly how a TCU boundary can be recognized in any situation. The focus is on the procedural analysis of talk-in-interaction, how participants systematically organize their interactions to solve a range of organizational problems, such as the distribution of turns at talking, the collaborative production of particular actions, or problems of understanding.

Variation Analysis

Variationists’ approach to discourse stems from quantitative of linguistic change and variation. Although typically focused on social and linguistic constraints on semantically equivalent variants, the approach has also been extended to texts. Variationists’ approach to discourse stems from quantitative of linguistic change and variation.



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